The expansion of judicial power has gone hand-in-hand with a greater emphasis on judicial independence. The more that judges hold those who exercise political power to account, the greater the emphasis placed on ensuring that judges are equipped—individually and institutionally—to resolve politically sensitive disputes impartially, according to law and free from improper pressure. But there is a risk that the notion of judicial independence will become inflated, squeezing out for example legitimate political criticism of judicial decisions. This seminar explored the definition and proper limits of judicial independence.